Responsible tourism in Norway

Responsible tourism in Norway


Travel right in Norway

Compared to many countries, responsible tourism in Norway seems close to the nation’s heart, bolstered by national wealth, a love of Nature’s bounty, plus widely professed Nordic egalitarianism with respect to indigenous Sami. 98-99% of Norway's electricity comes from hydroelectricity, billions are invested in biomass and other renewable energy projects, and Norway has committed to being domestically carbon neutral by 2030. Norwegian fish stocks are managed sustainably and in good condition - albeit after past overfishing. Yet a long consumer boom has actually seen domestic CO2 emissions rise since Norway adopted a carbon tax in 1991, while critics argue global warming is fuelled by its vast oil/gas exports – a charge, of course, all producers face. Land issues with the Sami also remain unresolved. Norway clearly wants to be a leader in environmental and social responsibility – but it can still up its game further when it comes to practice.

People & Culture


JUGGLING RIGHTS FOR ALL

Sami rights – but which Sami?


Around 40,000 indigenous Sami live in northern Norway, with 25,000 concentrated in Finnmark. And they live on the frontline of climate change in an Arctic landscape highly sensitive to climatic variables. Melting ice, changes to humidity and precipitation plus acidification of waters impact directly on key elements of Sami life such as reindeer husbandry and fishing. In the light of ongoing threats, responsible tourism helps Sami communities both financially and in maintaining traditions.

A balance needs to be struck, however, between the benefits of cultural tourism and possible threats from adventure tourism, which can impose competing demands. Reindeer herding is regarded as a key part of Sami identity, for example, but herders are suffering from a shrinking of available herding land as other users encroach on their territory. And while Sami are earning increasing amounts from souvenir sales and small-scale tourism initiatives, there is still little actual Sami ownership of things like hotels. The need is to preserve and present a wonderful Sami wilderness, while maximizing indigenous local benefits from tourism.
 
On a political level, stresses need to be resolved around the Norwegian state's efforts to mediate between differing Sami groups.. The so-called ‘East Sami’ who live along the border with Russia and Finland are particularly affected by these developments, with a decreasing number of grazing sites. The situation is worsened by what the 'East Sami' see as encroachment on their territory by the so-called ‘Sea-Sami’.

The UN Human Rights Committee has urged the Norwegian government to designate an area along the Neiden River known as Neiden-siida for the sole use of the ‘East Sami’. And though the ‘East Sami’ are unrepresented in the Norwegian Sami Assembly, the Assembly is nevertheless responsible for protecting their interests – but has failed to consider the issue, which remains unresolved.

Source: Media Global News

Source: World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

What you can do:
Support Sami-focused tourist initiatives. Do tours and visit events in Sami settlements like Kautokeino and Karasjok; buy locally-made souvenirs; eat Sami food; visit cultural spaces such as the Sápmi Culture Park in Karasjok. And when you are out in the wild, remember that this is their homeland first and foremost, not your playground.

Wildlife & environment


PROTECTING THE PREDATORS & LAND USE

Stop your Whaling!


Though Norway has boomed from the black gold of North Sea oil since the 1970s, in the preceding decades since the end of WW2 things weren't nearly so rosy. A key industry in these lean times was fishing, and any attack on that was seen as an attack on a key prop of the country's economy – which, sadly, included commercial whaling. And Norway continues to defy anti-whaling demands from across the globe.
Unlike the reasons offered by other whaling nations – scientific 'research' by Japan, sheer spiky national bloody-mindedness for Iceland – Norway simply denies key tenets of the anti-whaling position. They dispute that whaling decimates stocks by claiming they operate a sustainable quota system, and even now claim to use “humane” methods of slaughter!

Norwegian authorities also argue that they firmly support the protection of endangered whale species, and only allow the hunting of ones they say are not at risk due to high numbers, such as the north-east Atlantic minke whale, which they say has a population of around 100,000. But history is full of examples of ‘huge’ populations decimated to extinction. Most of the trade is driven by global export rather than domestic consumption which, as in Iceland, is low in Norway. You will, however, see plenty of whale meat on sale in fish markets in places like Bergen as well as on tourist menus.

Other countries have shown how whale tourism can be a prime weapon in the battle against whaling. The Azores is a prime example where whale watching has become a major example of responsible tourism meaning good business – as elsewhere in the world, illustrated in our whale watching guide. Even fellow whaling nation Iceland now has thriving whale-watching initiatives that are rolling back the drive to kill these magnificent ocean giants. While whale watching is still on a small scale in Norway, conditions are excellent for it to expand.

What you can do:
Don't eat whale or eat in restaurants that serve it. Book local whale watching trips where available to help boost demand. And tell Norwegians how their continuing slaughter of whales damages the image of their nation abroad.

When the hunters become the hunted


Despite polls showing 80% of Norwegians want to maintain or increase their tiny wolf population – estimated at just 25-30 animals – a cabal of vocal farmers and short-sighted politicians appears intent on butchering these magnificent animals, despite the lack of any genuine rationale for their position. Around 2 million sheep graze untended in territory roamed by wolves and other predators, yet figures for the number lost to predation are estimated at no more than 1,500 per year – far less than are killed in accidents. Furthermore, fewer than 10% of the country's sheep farmers report any predation at all – while any losses that do occur for the tiny minority are handsomely compensated by the government.

For a country that proclaims its love of nature and wildlife, Norwegian authorities seem to exclude predators from that equation. Just 1% of the country is designated as 'wolf zone' – though even here, only a few litters a year are 'allowed', with the rest being shot. Such low population levels on their own threaten the survival of Norway's wolves through lack of genetic viability - even without any direct assault on numbers. Thankfully, legal challenges are being made - a court case brought by wildlife associations resulted in a judge stopping a wolf cull around Junsele in February 2014.

Insane culls are justified using various dubious tactics. Arbitrary targets are set for the number of litters each year, unsupported by scientific reasoning and in the face of all evidence to the contrary with regard to dangers posed by the animals and the needs of genetic diversity. Another tactic is to simply assert the greater rights of livestock and reindeer over predators – thus allowing populations of animals under no threat at all to take precedence over animals on Norway's own Red List of 'critically endangered' species. A third approach is simply to designate certain individual wolves or other predators as 'problem individuals' – then shoot them.

Strong state support for the farming sector does not require a demonisation of Norway's predators that flies totally in the face of any professed national respect for nature.

What you can do: 
Support wildlife associations and other campaigns seeking to protect these predators in Norway (and elsewhere). And write to Norwegian authorities – MPs, tourist bodies – letting them know you oppose senseless predator culls, and making it clear that they damage the image of Norway. A good starting point is the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment who oversee Norway’s conservation policy.

Responsible tourism tips


Travel better in Norway

  • Always ask permission In Sami areas before taking a picture of someone, as some Sami are sensitive about photography. The same applies if taking pictures in places where whaling takes place, as locals may be concerned that photos will be used against them in the media.
  • Be aware of xenophobia some Norwegians may show to people of colour that may result in racist comments and other displays of prejudice. The vast majority of Norwegians are friendly and open minded, but there has been some unrest in a few of the poorer suburbs, kicking off racial tension.
  • Norway is very strong on recycling, including a mandatory deposit scheme for glass bottles and cans. So if you buy these, be sure to take them back to a shop (not necessarily where you bought them!). Supermarkets also give money back for aluminium cans and plastic bottles (though only around 1 kroner, so you won't get rich).
  • Alcohol consumption is not only very expensive in Norway but strictly controlled in terms of where it can be bought. Drunkenness can be heavily frowned upon, and drinking beer in public is even illegal in some places, running the risk of incurring a hefty fine. That said, don't worry about enjoying a drink in a bar (though your wallet might...)!
  • Speed limits in Norway are slower than many other European countries – and rigorously enforced by mobile police units and speed cameras. Even going 5km/h over the limit could earn you a fine of around £100 if you get caught.
Photo credits: [sami: Tarja Mitrovic] [whales: Espen Klem]
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